Associated with copper-based molybdenum-copper-molybdenum porphyry copper type deposits often exist, because of its large reserves, it is an important resource in the world to extract copper, but also an important source of molybdenum. Because this type has a low-grade ore deposits, disseminated fine particle size characteristic properties, molybdenite and has a layered structure, with good natural floatability, often with chalcopyrite, pyrite intimately associated, the copper-molybdenum separation More difficult. The Solkunduk copper-molybdenum deposit in Fuyun County, Xinjiang has the commonality of porphyry copper deposits associated with molybdenum in China. Studying its suitable copper-molybdenum beneficiation process is of great significance from the economic and successful application of successful technologies. . This experiment focused on the study of ore of low metal content of the primary metal, copper molybdenum minerals dissemination size thickness, uneven, copper and molybdenum minerals and gangue minerals was close symbiosis characteristics, the grinding stage, the other stage is selected floating Selecting process and mixed flotation method, selecting and comparing the flotation agent from copper-molybdenum mixed flotation operation and copper-molybdenum separation operation, formulating the suitable beneficiation process and chemical system of the mine, and obtaining a good test index.
First, the nature of the ore
Metal ore minerals pyrite, chalcopyrite, followed with a molybdenite, sphalerite, bornite, chalcocite, pyrrhotite and the like; gangue minerals are quartz, feldspar, calcite , dolomite, chlorite, diopside , garnet, etc. The ore structure has a granular structure, a semi-automorphic granular structure, a self-shaped granular structure, an inclusion structure, a worm-like structure, a solid solution separation structure, and the like. The ore structure is dominated by plaque-like structures, followed by plaque-like structures, disseminated structures, and vein structures. The copper and molybdenum grades in the ore are 0.55% and 0.021%, respectively, and belong to low-grade copper-molybdenum ore.
(1) Ore chemical composition and mineral composition
Ore multi-element chemical analysis results in Table 1, wherein the gold and silver content in units of g /; t primary elemental copper molybdenum chemical phase analysis results in Table 2; mineral ore type and content of Table 3
(2) Embedding characteristics of main metal minerals in ore
Chalcopyrite: Chalcopyrite is mainly composed of irregular granular aggregates embedded in gangue. There are often gangue inclusions in the aggregates, and occasional inclusions of pyrite inclusions. The aggregate particle size is generally between 0.3 and 0.02 mm, and the edges are irregular. Some chalcopyrites are irregularly granular and worm-like embedded in the gangue. The particle size is generally between 0.03 and 0.01 mm, and the boundary rules are smooth. A small amount of chalcopyrite is star-shaped, fine-grained in the gangue, or embedded in the sphalerite as a solid solution separation structure, or embedded in irregular pyrite inclusions in pyrite. The composition includes the structure. This part of chalcopyrite generally has a fine particle size of less than 0.01 mm, some of which are slightly coarser in size but more complicated in structure, and it is more difficult to dissociate the monomer.
Molybdenum ore: The main molybdenum mineral of this ore, with low content and fine particle size, but widely distributed. It is mainly embedded in the gangue in a self-shaped, semi-self-shaped granular shape or a plate shape. The general particle size is less than 0.03 mm, and the particle size is less than 0.05 mm. The degree of crystallization is high, the boundary rule is straight, and there are many gangues embedded in the vicinity of metal sulfides, and there are fewer gangues away from metal sulfides, occasionally adjacent to chalcopyrite and pyrite or Wrapped in it. Some molybdenum ore is star-shaped and irregularly granulated in the gangue, and the general boundary is clear and smooth.
Second, small test process and test results
(1) Mineral processing process and pharmaceutical system
The experimental scheme has been carried out for the exploration of multiple schemes for the low content of the main metal of the ore, the uneven grain size of the copper-molybdenum mineral, and the close symbiosis of the molybdenum mineral with the copper mineral and the gangue mineral. On the basis of this, considering the difficult grinding of the ore, a comparative test of two different grinding process structures was carried out. The principle flow determined after the test comparison is the raw ore rough grinding, mixed coarse and fine re-grinding scheme, that is, after the original ore grinding to 70%-200 mesh, the copper-molybdenum mixed flotation is carried out, and the coarse concentrate is re-ground to 82%-325 mesh. After the second selection, the copper-molybdenum mixed concentrate is obtained. The copper-molybdenum mixed concentrate is separated from copper and molybdenum after separation, and the tailings are separated into copper concentrate. The molybdenum coarse concentrate is selected to obtain qualified molybdenum concentrate after 5 times. Agents used are: lime, sodium silicate, copper sulfate, butyl xanthate, A1, sodium sulfide, T17, transformer oil, coal oil. The closed circuit test process and pharmaceutical conditions are shown in Figure 1.
(2) Closed circuit test
The results of the closed circuit test are shown in Table 4.
Third, the main features and analysis of the process
(1) The mixed flotation process simplifies the selection process structure and reduces the difficulty of copper-molybdenum separation. The flotation method of copper-molybdenum ore generally has three schemes: preferential flotation, partial mixing flotation, and mixed flotation-re-separation. Since the biggest disadvantage of preferential flotation is that copper mineral (copper-activated molybdenum) or molybdenum mineral (molybdenum-free float copper) is suppressed, it can hardly be reactivated, and the process is complicated and the process cost is high. Partially mixed flotation is mainly used for the flotation method when the ore has a high molybdenum grade. The characteristics of the process scheme can reduce the difficulty of copper and molybdenum separation. In view of the low grade of the original mine molybdenum grade, this experiment mainly adopts the mixed flotation-re-separation scheme, and explores the feasibility of the preferential flotation and partial-mixing flotation scheme. The results show that the flotation operation of these two schemes is difficult, the flotation foam layer is thin, the flotation phenomenon is poor, the copper-molybdenum concentrate has high mutual content and the product quality is low. Through the comparison test of three kinds of process structure schemes, it is determined that the suitable copper-molybdenum ore separation process is a mixed flotation-re-separation process, which features: low grinding cost, less circulation in the middle mine, easy operation and control of the process, on-site Easy to implement, it can effectively reduce the process cost and improve the separation effect of copper and molybdenum.
(2) Copper-molybdenum mixed coarsely added gangue inhibitor water glass and copper-molybdenum selective collector A1, which greatly improved the mixed coarse grade, and reduced the burden for the subsequent mixed mixing and separation operations. The gangue minerals in the ore are mainly silicate minerals. In this experiment, the addition of water glass to copper and molybdenum is good. The water glass not only has a good inhibitory effect on the gangue, but also has a certain activation of molybdenum minerals. effect. In the exploration test of copper-molybdenum mixed coarse-collecting collector, conventional collectors such as xanthate, black medicine and kerosene were found as collectors or auxiliary collectors, and the ability to capture copper-molybdenum minerals, especially molybdenum minerals. Poor, the flotation foam is empty or the foam layer is thin and the state is not good. After a large number of copper-molybdenum collector comparison tests and new drug development, a new type of copper molybdenum has been developed.
Recipe A1, this kind of collector has strong harvesting ability, good selectivity and certain foaming performance. On the basis of determining the appropriate dosage and dosage, the crude copper concentrate grade reached 10.04%, molybdenum 0.392%, recovery copper 96.57%, molybdenum 84.61%, and the enrichment ratio of coarse copper and molybdenum was above 18. It can reduce the number of subsequent mixed selections and reduce the burden of separation work.
(3) The copper-molybdenum separation operation adopts the copper-inhibiting molybdenum-molybdenum process, and the high-efficiency cyanide-free copper inhibitor T17 is added to realize the effective separation of copper and mo At present, the common method for copper and molybdenum separation at home and abroad is copper-suppressing molybdenum, mainly cyanide method, sulfide method, thiosulfate + sulfate method, Knox method and so on. Because cyanide is highly toxic, it is easy to pollute the environment and endanger people's lives. It should not be used. In this experiment, only the other three separation methods and the new copper inhibitor T17 were developed on the basis of the sulfide method for copper-molybdenum separation exploration test. The test results show that the new copper inhibitors T17 and Knox method can obtain better separation index of copper and molybdenum, but the Knox method is not easy to prepare and store in the field, and the cost is high, while T17 is an inorganic salt agent. It has strong inhibition, non-toxicity and low cost to copper minerals. The experimental results of some representative copper-molybdenum separation copper inhibitors are shown in Table 5.
Fourth, the conclusion
(1) The valuable element of the ore is copper-molybdenum mineral. The main metal grade of the ore is low, the ore is closely symbiotic, the grain size of the mineral inlay is not uniform, the grain size of the copper mineral is coarse, and the grain size of the molybdenum mineral is fine. It is more difficult to select ore.
(II) The test results show that the ore dressing process of copper-molybdenum mixed flotation, coarse concentrate re-grinding and re-separation by raw ore rough grinding realizes effective separation of copper-molybdenum and obtains better test indicators, which is more advanced. Copper and molybdenum sorting process. The process has been used as the basis for the design of the 2400t/d plant of Solkunduk Copper and Molybdenum in Fuyun County, Xinjiang, and can also be used as a reference for other copper-molybdenum ore beneficiation technology .
(3) According to the nature and characteristics of the ore, a special effect-acquisition foaming agent A1 and a copper-molybdenum separation copper special effect inhibitor T17 have been developed for the copper-molybdenum mixing and flotation operation. The A1 has better selectivity and stronger capture. Both the force and the strong foaming performance, these two new agents are non-toxic, easy to add, and have greater environmental and low cost value.
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