· Low-speed electric vehicle chaos investigation: the more banned the fire

As the only province of 56 ethnic groups in northern China, it is also the birthplace of Confucian culture. Shandong and Shandong people have both the conservative and passion of the inland areas, as well as the openness and open-mindedness of the coastal areas. “Hospitality Shandong” has also become the “strongest advertising word” in Shandong today.
In 1985, the "Haier ç ¸ refrigerator incident" changed the competition pattern of the white goods industry, and brought the golden sign of "thousands of good business" to the world. Not breaking, but also a number of well-known enterprises in Shandong, such as Changyu, Hisense, Weichai Power, and Huangming.
Returning to the automotive industry, the rapid development of low-speed electric vehicles in Shandong not only created new GDP growth points in the province, but also brought the development of low-speed electric vehicles to the commanding heights of public opinion. “No need to play cards, no driver's license can drive” has become a marketing gimmick, and has also boosted the market expansion since 2012, but it also triggered “road rights disputes”, “industry chaos” and “qualifications”. Other topics are mixed debates between industry authorities and the media.
On March 15, 2014, CCTV's 3.15 evening party exposed Hongxing, Yuwang, Lubin and other enterprises from Shandong, and illegally produced and sold four-wheeled vehicles without the qualification of vehicle production. The low-speed electric vehicle enterprises under the banner of “Old Scooter” and “Sightseeing Car” will be exposed to problems such as “simplified craftsmanship, shoddy construction, poor safety and frequent accidents”. With the exposure of CCTV, all enterprises in the industry have been strictly investigated and rectified by relevant state departments, and the market has fallen into a trough.
All of this has changed since New Year's Day this year.
On January 13th, the first forum of China's new energy vehicle government think tank, China Electric Vehicle Hundred People's Association (hereinafter referred to as "Hundred People's Association") was held at the Diaoyutai State Guesthouse in Beijing. Its first research topic was to promote low-speed electric vehicles. Fuzheng, and reported the low-speed electric vehicle project report to the State Council Development Research Center, the Ministry of Public Security, the Ministry of Science and Technology, the National Development and Reform Commission, the Ministry of Environmental Protection, the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology and other relevant departments. The introduction of this report once again raised the topic of "turning positive" to low-speed electric vehicles to the high point of public opinion.
One is the official media exposure, and the other is a semi-official industry think tank to encourage appeals, so that public opinion and the market can't figure out. To this day, is the low-speed electric vehicle industry still as "distributed, chaotic, and poor" as it used to be? What is the status quo? What are the reasons for the support of the 100 people? What are the different views of the competent authorities in the face of this area of ​​development?
From January 22nd to February 2nd, on the above topics and doubts, Phoenix Motor went deep into Dezhou, Jinan, Zibo, Weifang, Rizhao, Qingdao, Weifang and other places, to the industry authorities Shandong Automobile Industry Association, China Lichi, Baoya Tang Jun, Redding, Aoguan Power Battery and other enterprises conducted research and interviews, and also conducted unannounced visits and investigations on the development status of the workshop-type production enterprises concerned in the industry.
Market "feast"
"Compared with the car, my car that does not burn oil can not only save money, but also take me to work in the farmland every day." On January 31, Phoenix Motor visited the county town of Wucheng County, Dezhou, Shandong Province, at the Lichi electric vehicle sales point. When I met local farmers, he told Phoenix Motors: "My family is not enough now. It used to be used to pick up grandchildren to go to school and go to the county to buy homes. Now with the large-scale greenhouse cultivation of rural land, the land is growing away from home. The farther you have to buy another one for your wife."
Such a situation often occurs in Zibo, Dezhou, Weifang and other third- and fourth-tier cities and urban-rural integration, even the capital city of Jinan can be seen everywhere.
When Phoenix Motors came to Shandong Liqi New Energy Technology Co., Ltd., the largest low-speed electric vehicle manufacturer in Texas, the chairman of the company and the vice president of Shandong Automobile Association and the chairman of Fulu Group Lu Fujun attracted everyone's attention.
“The low-speed electric vehicle industry is too 'grounded', so that the more it is hotter!”
The "pressure" he said was on March 15, 2014. The CCTV 3.15 party exposed the low-speed electric vehicle enterprise under the banner of "old scooter" and "sightseeing car". "The process is simple, crude, poorly safe, and accident." Frequently, the status quo of the industry.
With the exposure of CCTV, all enterprises in the industry have been strictly investigated and rectified by relevant state departments, and the market has fallen into a trough.
“From the moment of CCTV exposure, Shandong Province, the country with the largest development of low-speed electric vehicles, has been the biggest driver. Before June, the whole industry was in a state of stagnation. However, since August, we have resumed the dawn of the industry. Many companies have completed nearly half a year. The annual sales task.” For the industry boom, Lu Fujun pointed out: “As the urbanization process intensifies and the school merger process in the third- and fourth-tier cities and rural areas accelerates, it will further push up the demand for quality of life and the proportion of staying in the underdeveloped areas. The above social problems will lead consumers to choose low-priced low-speed electric vehicles as short-distance travel tools instead of cars."
According to the latest statistics of the enterprises of the 22 associations of the Shandong Automobile Industry Association, in 2014, Shandong produced a total of 187,500 low-speed electric vehicles, an increase of 50.46%.
Wei Xueqin, executive vice president and secretary general of Shandong Automobile Industry Association, told Phoenix Motors that the current low-speed electric vehicle production in Shandong Province is highly concentrated. According to statistics, Wind, Redding, Lichi and Baoya, a total of 143,600 low-speed electric vehicles were produced. Vehicles, accounting for the alliance (full name "new energy vehicle technology innovation alliance", focusing on low-speed four-wheel electric vehicles, was established on September 25, 2009), 76.65% of the total output of 22 enterprises, the province's production and sales of low-speed electric vehicles from 2010 The 18,200 vehicles quickly grew to 187,400 in 2014, a tenfold increase in five years. Since 2010, it has exported 32,000 vehicles to overseas markets.
“As of 2014, the total investment of the 9 companies in the 22 alliances reached 10.43 billion yuan, all of which were private capital investment. The company’s new energy enthusiasm and risks coexisted. The province’s total production capacity was 1 million. The province’s low speed in 2014 The output value of electric vehicles is 6.5 billion yuan, while the traditional fuel vehicles in the same period have fallen for the first time in a decade, with a drop of 1.61%. Low-speed electric vehicles are becoming a new growth point for the transformation and upgrading of Shandong automobile industry." For the development of the industry, Wei Xueqin Estimated: "By 2015, the production scale of low-speed electric vehicles in Shandong Province will reach 300,000 units, reaching the development target of 1 million units by 2020."
In June last year, Shandong Province released the first industry standard for low-speed electric vehicles (Q/3700SDQ0001-2014), and implemented a pilot program for low-speed electric vehicle insurance with Shandong Insurance Association. Currently, 9 companies have passed the access, 36 The products are up to standard acceptance.
Sun Hongwei, Marketing Director of Shandong Jiu'an Insurance Broker Co., Ltd. told Phoenix Motors, “At present, Pacific Insurance has extended its business to Hebei, Jiangsu, Henan, Anhui and other provinces to promote the expansion of low-speed electric vehicles in Shandong Province to other provinces and cities.
In the face of attractive market cakes, traditional auto companies are also actively involved.
At present, BAIC's low-speed electric vehicle project with an annual production capacity of 100,000 in Shandong is under construction and will be put into operation in June this year. On January 10th, the new Dayang Electric Technology Co., Ltd., a joint venture between Geely and New Dayang (New Dayang Electromechanical Group), was officially listed. The first new car, the D1, was opened at the Gili Lanzhou factory. At the same time, traditional giants such as Chery, Zotye, Lifan, Dongfeng and Jiangling have low-speed electric vehicles entering the market and product development plans. The current market situation is in full swing, and the industry itself is chaotic, which has exposed the lack of industry supervision.
Lack of supervision On February 1, Phoenix Motors came to Wucheng County, Dezhou, Shandong Province, and many workshop-style enterprises were separated from the law.
"Compared with us, Lichi, Shifeng, Redding, Tang Jun, Baoya are not competitive in electric vehicles. Although the quality is very good, the cost is high. Their lowest price is more than 20,000, and I only need 13,000 yuan. The middle profit is about 3,000 yuan." Facing the temptation of the "exclusive agent" in the region, Xue Bing, general manager of Shandong Wucheng Jiachi Automobile Industry Co., told reporters, "We produce 5 vehicles a day. If the purchase reaches more than 3 vehicles, each The car can also cost 1,000 yuan."
Looking around, the house is full of smells of formaldehyde and plastic products. The factory area is less than 200 square meters. There are various parts scattered on the ground. There are only three people in the factory industry, including their mothers, aunts and painters, but they themselves. Both sales and supervisor positions. Facing the unevenness of the front windshield and the roof, the mother directly hammered the roof iron to the concave with the hoe, and directly filled with the glass glue at the gap of the glass.
Dean Boxin Automobile Co., Ltd. Manager Ji Enchao's business card site is displayed in the “Wucheng County Chengdong Development Zone”, but in fact it is a village. The “Yaki 207”, which is called “Hydroelectric Hybrid” model, is only in lead-acid battery. A small generator is installed next to it. The price of bare car is 190 million yuan. Its products are exported to Tibet, Xinjiang, Hainan Heilongjiang, and other provinces in the country.
The German Penghe Group, which is not far apart, is in bankruptcy. Its traditional agricultural machinery production workshop is empty, and the doors and windows of the factory have disappeared. The only “busy” workshop is to manufacture low-speed electric vehicles. The low-speed electric vehicles are all made of plastic steel. Once wet by the rain, the car body will be tying, tearing and other hazards, the price is only 8,000 yuan.
Facing the chaos of the industry, Wei Xueqin said frankly: "As an industry association organization, the important new energy vehicle technology innovation alliance in the province is only a self-discipline organization. The association only has supervision and guidance for 22 member companies. For industries outside the alliance. In the chaos, we have no governance authority, and we hope that the industry authorities can introduce a severe crackdown policy."
“The questioning about the safety of low-speed electric vehicles is more from private production of some shoddy workshops.” Shu Xin, a producer of the brand of Shandong Redad Energy Power Technology Co., Ltd., said that “the current small-scale electric motor produced by the brand company” The car is almost always produced with reference to the car safety standards, and passed the safety crash test of the China National Car Quality Supervision and Inspection Center."
It is understood that Baoya, Lichi, Shifeng, Tangjun Ou Ling, Redding and other low-speed electric vehicle production lines adopt standardized production processes similar to those of OEMs, achieving vehicle safety design and stamping, welding and painting. , the assembly of mechanized, semi-automatic production. The safety and stability of the car body have been greatly improved. Some high-profile models are also equipped with power lithium batteries, electronic air conditioners, airbags, and electronic power.
Indeed, the low-speed electric vehicle industry is shuffling. Brand-oriented enterprises are “self-sharpening” and “revolving their own lives”. In order to obtain sales in the national market, they have to adopt the “傍富婆” model to carry out capital and technical cooperation with automakers with passenger vehicle qualifications. , Zhidou belongs to it.
Knowing the bean model, the birth of the bean is a typical "flowering outside the wall".
It is understood that the soybeans that have not been sold in China have already received nearly 100,000 export orders from Europe. At the launch of the New Ocean? Zhidou, the soul of the new energy vehicle R & D team, Bao Wenguang, chairman of the New Ocean Group, also entered the media field, but previously it has never entered the automotive industry.
Before the new ocean was not cooperating with Zotye, the micro-pure electric vehicle Zhidou was once a "low-speed electric vehicle" that traveled in the grey area of ​​regulatory regulation. However, Bao Wenguang has publicly stated that he does not like the outside world to locate "Knowledge Beans". “Exactly, we are producing miniature urban electric vehicles, not low-speed electric vehicles in the general sense.”
He always said, "Have you ever seen a low-speed electric car running at 80 kilometers per hour?"
New Ocean has been pursuing the qualification of electric vehicle production for the past eight years, but it has never been recognized by the state. Until 2013, the cooperation with Zotye allowed it to obtain the production qualification of a valuable vehicle manufacturer. The promotion list of energy vehicles won the title of “regular army”, and the new ocean also saw the hope of development and growth.
However, the good times did not last long, and the two sides eventually broke up due to different production bases and technological R&D routes.
Following the joint venture with Zhongtai in 2013 to launch the micro electric vehicle “Zhidou”, Baowenguang’s new ocean once again launched a “Zhidou” miniature electric vehicle jointly with Geely. On January 10, the new Dayang Electric Technology Co., Ltd., which was jointly established by the two parties, was officially listed. The next day, the new car Zhidou D1 was rolled off at the Gili Lanzhou factory.
The new ocean has issued a clear signal to those low-speed electric vehicle manufacturers who have nowhere to go. If they do not want to wait for the sunny policy, they will be able to make a low-speed electric vehicle as soon as possible and successfully build a big ship like Geely. The production company will leave the dangerous sea area where this reef is infested as soon as possible. Bao Wenguang was more fortunate than others. He got a few "ship tickets".
In the face of Zhizhu's "turning to the right" road, Lu Fujun gave a positive position.
"From a business perspective, the Zhidou model has opened up a new path for the development of the low-speed electric vehicle industry. It is worth learning from other companies in the industry and can obtain national marketing qualifications in the short term. However, the shortcoming is that it will lose a certain right to speak in the process of joint venture with others. Lu Fujun said.
For Lu Fujun's support speech, Wei Xueqin gave a different opinion: "In the short term, it is very profitable, but this is not suitable for the development of the industry. In the future, the development of low-speed electric vehicles should be based on their own efforts to obtain qualifications, rather than grafting others."
Turning to the positive cloud facing the embarrassing position of low-speed electric vehicles. On February 8th, as the convener of the "Hundred People's Association" low-speed electric vehicle, Fu Yuwu, chairman of the China Automotive Engineering Society, stressed in an interview: "It is recommended to include low-speed electric vehicles in the classification of motorcycles to solve the problem of road rights. In terms of access, low-speed electric vehicles are used as test fields, product access is strict, enterprise access is wide-ranging supervision system; by taking advantage of the scale advantage of small electric vehicles, battery companies are promoted to form cost advantages, thus driving Chinese battery companies and The development of battery core technology."
Dong Yang, vice president and secretary general of the China Association of Automobile Manufacturers, pointed out that low-speed electric vehicles should be an important branch in the field of electric vehicles.
He said that electric cars should have three branches, one is tall on the "Tesla", sold to people who are not too expensive; the other branch is plug-in hybrid car, considering cost and performance; there is a branch is Regardless of performance, low-speed electric vehicles are mainly considered for cost.
So, is the low-speed electric car really as the experts say "turning to the right" or "blue ocean economy"?
On February 9, Wu Wei, director of the Industry Coordination Department of the National Development and Reform Commission, said in an interview: "From a legal perspective, low-speed electric vehicles do not have this model in the Chinese motor vehicle branch, which belongs to the market 'monster'."
It is reported that the current management law of China's motor vehicle industry - "Safety Technical Conditions for Motor Vehicle Operation" is defined as "automobile and automobile trains, motorcycles and mopeds, tractor transport units, wheeled special machinery vehicles and trailers". Etc., but does not include any vehicles that operate in orbit.” And the bill was issued by the Ministry of Public Security. If a low-speed electric vehicle is included in the national unified traffic management system, the bill must be amended.
A large number of low-speed electric vehicles can only be produced and sold under the names of “electric sightseeing vehicles”, “old scooters” and “electric bicycles”. Although some enterprises refer to the standard specifications issued by foreign industry organizations, they lack the binding force, lack of after-sales, poor configuration, rough manufacturing process, and poor safety and reliability. This is also the main reason why the competent authorities of the industry are “strictly guarded against the market”. .
"For the time being, if you manage it in full accordance with the standards of the car, then all aspects of the low-speed electric car can not reach the car standard, it will not be possible to drive on the road. Therefore, there are two options in our report, one is in accordance with the EU L6e, L7e four-wheeled motorcycle standard to manage, on the basis of innovation; the other is a single low-speed electric vehicle management system for management." Fu Yuwu believes that "to take care of the needs of people's livelihood, strong The market demand is from the majority of farmers, they want to enjoy the convenience brought by electric vehicles, but also want to enjoy the price is cheap, to meet these two points, too high performance configuration is impossible to achieve, but there is a huge in China Regional differences, such as the large cities such as Beishangguang, can make such low-profile low-speed electric vehicles popular? Obviously not."
"But in the vast rural areas, it is indeed unstoppable. Almost every home has at least one low-speed electric vehicle." Fu Yuwu said, "So, letting a large-scale city like Beishangguang use the same management method as the rural area is currently the largest. The problem, therefore, it is very difficult to establish a new management system to solve the huge differential problems that exist today.
For the progress of low-speed electric vehicles, the current auto owners' management departments such as the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, the Ministry of Science and Technology, the National Development and Reform Commission, the Ministry of Environmental Protection, and the Ministry of Public Security have all received the application for the copying of the low-speed electric vehicles. However, it is necessary for the ministries and commissions to After the separate investigation of the department, the consultation between the ministries and commissions can be carried out. Only after the opinions of all parties are unified, can the contents of the "Safety Technical Conditions for Motor Vehicle Operation" be revised and implemented by the Ministry of Public Security.
According to Wu Wei, Europe, the United States and Japan are inclusive of the light and heavy-duty four-wheeled motorcycles or on-site vehicles involved in the L6e/L7e, but the models are rare on the road, not the mainstream of the automobile industry, and most of them are beach motorcycles. It is mostly used for entertainment, and such a car cannot travel on the main road.
"The national law is not formulated for a certain interest group or a local government. It is universal. If the low-speed electric vehicle does not change the status of 'low quality, scattered', it is difficult to force the country to use the method of 'urban encircling the city'. At the end of the interview, Wu Wei stressed that “the low-speed electric car is loosened, the competent department is a pioneer, or a historical sinner. I hope history can be an objective evaluation.”
The reporter believes that there are still different opinions on the management of low-speed electric vehicles between various ministries. At present, the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology and the Ministry of Science and Technology have a positive attitude toward the development of low-speed electric vehicles, while the Ministry of Public Security and the National Development and Reform Commission are slightly cautious. In the next two years, there will be signs of loosening of the policy; if there is a problem in the communication link, the low-speed electric vehicle will be re-investigated and demonstrated, which means that the "turning to the right" will become distant.
“The stock market is risky and the market needs to be cautious” is often hanged in the stock market. In the face of the fierce market and the wavering policy, low-speed electric vehicle practitioners are further confused.
Half of the yin and yang policy is flame and half is sea water.
Compared with the policy "swinging", at this moment, the head of the Shandong low-speed electric vehicle company is difficult to laugh.
“Many of our core R&D personnel are from traditional OEMs, and the production line is designed according to the four major processes of the traditional automobile industry, with an investment of 600 million yuan. Last year, the sales volume reached more than 10,000.” Shandong Mailard Energy Power Technology Co., Ltd. General Manager Shu Xin said frankly, “Once the state implements a clear management policy for the low-speed electric vehicle industry, we will increase investment and automate all.”
Fulu Group, which occupies 70% of the national three-wheeled motorcycle market, has now switched its main business to producing low-speed electric vehicles. Lu Fujun, chairman of the company, told reporters: "We actively invested 600 million yuan in research and development and production of low-speed electric vehicles in 2010. No penny is a loan. It can be said that I will bet my own worth in this respect, and wait for the national clear policy to be introduced."
In the course of the interview, Lu Fujun often mentioned "to build a safe car that farmers can afford." He explained that at present, our product research institute has more than 100 people, more than 2,600 employees, more than 40 million taxpayers, and more than 1,000 sets of equipment. All of them are not for speculation. We hope to use our own quality and brand to incite this. Market, not short-term behavior.
Give up or stick to it?
This is a sentence that the person in charge of the company often asks himself during the investigation. In the face of the huge rural market, the nine companies in the above-mentioned alliances are mostly in a state of "holding on". At the same time, the traditional car companies have "greatly shined" because they have the qualification of passenger car production and the unified 4S shop sales online store in the country.
On September 4, 2014, Lifan launched the low-speed electric car 320E, which was built on the Lifan 320 sedan and sold for 438,000 yuan. It uses a lead-acid battery with a top speed of 67km/h.
Chery's electric vehicle eQ based on QQ has been sold in the market for many years. After enjoying the state subsidy, the price is only 59,800 yuan. The once-popular Zhongtai Zhidou has a total price of less than 50,000 yuan after subsidies.
It can be said that mainstream brands including Jiangling, Dongfeng, Zotye, and Geely have already invested in low-speed electric vehicles. With the inherent advantages, the low-speed electric vehicles produced by these manufacturers can not only get subsidies, but also get cards.
However, it is worth noting that the reporter learned from industry insiders that Chery eQ sold nearly 12,000 vehicles in Shandong Province, while consumers demanded only 2 vehicles.
The reporter believes that by opening up the history of commercial development in developed countries, we can find that the fundamentals of enterprise rise are technological innovation and management system improvement. From the market point of view, low-speed electric vehicles do have certain market demand, but from the long-term perspective of consumption upgrading. Seeing that the lower market price of low-speed electric vehicles has hindered the upgrading of technology in the industry, and the automakers have entered the market at a low price. The prevalence of “skirt-style” industry management seems to be legal, which in fact limits the progress and development of the industry. The lack of industry policies has further enhanced the uncertainty of the development of mixed industry, which has contributed to the vicious development of workshop-style low-speed electric vehicles.

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